Listening to Students’ and Teachers’ Voices: Online Teaching Practices Leading to EFL Learners ' Demotivation


  • Erna Iftanti English Education Program, UIN Sayyid Ali Rahmatullah Tulungagung, Indonesia
  • Nany Soengkono Madayani English Education Program, UIN Sayyid Ali Rahmatullah Tulungagung, Indonesia
  • Nada Mohsen Said Ali Sherif English Department, Ain Shams University, Egypt



Demotivation, Online Learning, Teaching Practices


This study was conducted in response to the online teaching practices which demotivate EFL learners in learning English from both the teachers' and students' perspectives so that it can provide an equal point of view. The study was done by distributing a questionnaire to 152 students of the State Islamic Madrasah in Tulungagung, East Java, Indonesia to find data related to those who experience demotivation in learning English and interviewing them in depth both directly and indirectly through voice notes in July to September 2022. The in-depth interview was also done to their English teachers. The result of qualitative data analysis revealed that students were demotivated, bored, and lazy during online learning because of two main factors, namely teachers, i.e., uninteresting teaching methods and techniques, lack of online teaching experience, teacher’s personality, and the usage of the online learning application. Meanwhile, the teachers perceive that their demotivating EFL teaching was resulted from students' learning loss, lack of students' learning involvement, and teachers' feeling insecure caused by some factors, namely the variety of online teaching methods, the accessibility of online learning media, family interference, and students' internal lack of motivation. Still, this demotivating online teaching and learning do not significantly implicate the students' achievement of English. These research results are pedagogically implemented to improve the quality of online teaching and learning English, mainly at the secondary levels.


Abadi, K., & Fauziati, E. (2018). Male and female students demotivation in EFL teaching learning process: Case study in Ta'Mirul Islam boarding school years 2017/2018. Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta.

Acarol, K. (2020). A study on investıgatıng the factors that demotıvate learners of Englısh as a Foreıgn Language (EFL). Master’s Thesis, Program of English Language Teaching, Graduate School of Educational Sciences, Ankara. Available at

Adara, R. A., & Najmudin, O. (2020). Analysis on the differences in EFL learners’ demotivating factors after covid 19 pandemic. Ta'dib, 23(2), 225-236. Available at

Alawamleh, M., Al-Twait, L. M., & Al-Saht, G. R. (2020). The effect of online learning on communication between instructors and students during the Covid-19 pandemic. Asian Education and Development Studies, 11(2), 380-400.

Alemu, B. M. (2014). Enhancing the quality and relevance of higher education through effective teaching practices and instructors' characteristics. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(9), 632–647.

Alim, N., Linda, W., Gunawan, F., & Saad, M. S. M. (2019). The effectiveness of Google classroom as an instructional media: A case of State Islamic Institute of Kendari, Indonesia. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(2), 240-246.

Allo, M. D. G. (2020). Is the online learning good in the midst of Covid-19 Pandemic? The case of EFL learners. Jurnal Sinestesia, 10(1), 1-10.

Alyousif, R., & Alsuhaibani, Z. (2021). English language learning demotivating factors for Saudi high school EFL students. English Language Teaching, 14(8), 29-39.

Akay, C. (2017). Turkish high school students' English demotivation and their seeking for remotivation: A mixed method research. English Language Teaching, 10 (8), 107-122.

Atmojo, AEP, & Nugroho, A. (2020). EFL classes must go online! Teaching challenges and activities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Register Journal, 13 (1), 49-76.

Bailey, DR, & Lee, AR (2020). Learning from experience in the midst of covid-19: benefits, challenges, and strategies in online teaching. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 21 (2), 178-198.

Chadi, R., Chorfi, K., & Guerfi, S. (2021). Investigating EFL teachers' and learners' attitudes towards the effects of online learning on the learners’ learning motivation during covid-19 pandemic. A Dissertation, the Faculty of Letters and Languages, Larbi Ben M'hidi University - Oum El Bough)

Dashtestani, R. (2014). English as a foreign language—teachers' perspectives on implementing online instruction in the Iranian EFL context. Research in Learning Technology, 22.

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online learning: A panacea in the time of COVID-19 crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49 (1), 5-22.

Donnelly, R., & Patrinos, HA (2021). Learning loss during COVID-19: An early systematic review. Prospects, 1-9.

Dorn, E., Hancock, B., Sarakatsannis, J., & Viruleg, E. (2020). COVID-19 and learning loss—disparities grow and students need help. McKinsey & Company, December, 8, 6-7.

Engzell, P., Frey, A., & Verhagen, MD (2021). Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118 (17), e2022376118.

Esra, M. E. Ş. E., & Sevilen, Ç. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning, 4(1), 11-22.

Evans, M., & Tragant, E. (2020). Demotivation and dropout in adult EFL learners. TESL-EJ, 23 (4), n4.

Ferri, F., Grifoni, P., & Guzzo, T. (2020). Online learning and emergency remote teaching: Opportunities and challenges in emergency situations. Societies, 10(4), 86.

Had, MZC, & Rashid, RA (2019). A review of digital skills of Malaysian English language teachers. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 14 (2).

Hernández, SSF, & Flórez, ANS (2020). Online teaching during Covid-19: How to maintain students motivated in an EFL class. Linguistics and Literature Review, 6 (2), 157-171.

Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Education review, 27, 1-12.

Iftanti, E., Imelda, I., & Yunita, W. (2023). Uncovering EFL learners’ demotivation towards English online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Studies in English Language and Education, 10(1), 96-119.

Jones, S., Johnson-Yale, C., Millermaier, S., & Pérez, FS (2008). Academic work, the Internet and US college students. The Internet and Higher Education, 11 (3-4), 165-177.

Khatoony, S., & Nezhadmehr, M. (2020). EFL teachers' challenges

in integration of technology for online classrooms during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Iran. AJELP: Asian Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 8 (2), 89-104.

Krishnan, KSD, & Pathan, ZH (2013). Investigating demotivation in learning English: An extension to Sakai and Kikuchi's (2009) framework. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 4 (2), 124-131.

Krystalli, P. (2020). Undergraduate students' perceptions of virtual teaching. European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 7(3), 121-130.

Law Insider Dictionary. (n.d). Learning Loss Definition. Available at Accessed on January 29, 2023

Learning loss Definition | Law Insider available at accessed on November 8, 2022

Li, C., & Wei, L. (2022). Anxiety, enjoyment, and boredom in language learning amongst junior secondary students in rural China: How do they contribute to L2 achievement?. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1-16.

Liu, M., Zheng, Y., Ma, X., & Wei, Y. (2020). Sustaining multilingualism in Chinese universities: Uzbekistani students’ demotivation while learning Chinese. Sustainability, 12(18), 7570

MacIntyre, PD, Gregersen, T., & Mercer, S. (2020). Language teachers' coping strategies during the Covid-19 conversion to online teaching: Correlations with stress, wellbeing and negative emotions. System, 94, 102352.

Mahyoob, M. (2020). Challenges of e-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Experienced by EFL Learners. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 11 (4).

Mukminin, A., Muazza, M., Hustarna, H., & Sari, SR (2015). Stories from the frontlines: In-service teachers' demotivating factors and policy recommendations. International Journal of Academic Research in Education, 1 (2), 40-52. DOI: 10.17985/ijare.56085

Octaberlina, L.R., & Muslimin, A.I. (2020). EFL students perspective towards online learning barriers and alternatives using moodle/google classroom during the covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Higher Education, 9 (6), 1-9.

Oliver, R. (1999). Exploring strategies for online teaching and learning. Distance Education, 20 (2), 240-254.

Pasaribu, TA, & Dewi, N. (2021). Indonesian EFL students' voices on online learning during COVID-19 through appraisal analysis. LEARN Journal: Language Education and Acquisition Research Network, 14 (1), 399-426.

Putri, W. (2021). E-learning pedagogical challenges of EFL teachers during COVID-19 pandemic. EDUTECH, 20 (1).

Rahim, MN, & Chandran, SSC (2021). Investigating EFL Students' Perceptions on E-learning Paradigm-Shift During the Covid-19 Pandemic. Elsya: Journal of English Language Studies, 3 (1), 56-66.

Razkane, H., Sayeh, A. Y., & Yeou, M. (2021). University teachers’ attitudes towards distance learning during COVID-19 pandemic: Hurdles, challenges, and take-away lessons. European Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Education, 3(1), e02201.

Ren, X. (2022). The psychological and cognitive factors causing college students' demotivation to learn English in China. Frontiers in Psychology, 4962.

Sadiku, MN, Adebo, PO, & Musa, SM (2018). Online teaching and learning. International Journals of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 8 (2), 73-75.

Salmee, SA, & Arif, MM (2019). A study on the use of humor in motivating students to learn English. Asian Journal of University Education, 15 (3), 257-265.

Santosa, I., & Riady, Y. (2021). Demotivating factors of EFL learners of Indonesian undergraduate students during pandemic Covid-19: Gender differences. Linguists : Journal Of Linguistics and Language Teaching, 7(1), 118-130. doi:

Siripol, P., & Wilang, J. D. (2021). Demotivation and coping strategies in synchronous online teaching. Asian EFL Journal, 28(2.2), 7-23.

Trang, TTT, & Baldauf, RB (2007). Demotivation: Understanding resistance to English language learning-the case of Vietnamese students. The journal of Asia TEFL, 4 (1), 79-105.

Unal, K., & Yanpar Yelken, T. (2016). Turkish students' demotivation to study English: A scale development. Croatian Journal of Education: Hrvatski asopis za odgoj i obrazovanje, 18 (3), 755-777.

Wang, Y., & Guan, H. (2020). Exploring demotivation factors of Chinese learners of English as a foreign language based on positive psychology. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 29 (1), 851. DOI: 10.24205/03276716.2020.116

Wei, X. (2018). Optimization design of teaching strategies for English teaching achievement improvement based on original algorithm. Wireless Personal Communications, 102 (2), 1191-1201.

Wright, BM (2017). Blended learning: Student perception of face-to-face and online EFL lessons. Indonesian journal of applied linguistics, 7 (1), 64-71

Xie, J. (2020). Learner perceptions of demotivators in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom: Conceptual framework, scale development, and tentative underlying cause analysis. A Doctoral dissertation, Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Foundations).




How to Cite

Iftanti, E. ., Madayani, N. S., & Sherif , N. M. S. A. . (2023). Listening to Students’ and Teachers’ Voices: Online Teaching Practices Leading to EFL Learners ’ Demotivation. JEELS (Journal of English Education and Linguistics Studies), 10(1), 149–175.